Photos of of Bacillus subtilis biofilm by Fernan Federici, PJ Steiner, Tim Rudge, and Jim Haseloff, University of Cambridge.
1st photo: Complex biofilm colonies can have eye-catching morphological features and spatial organization. Image: A three-dimensional confocal stack of a Bacillus subtilis colony growing on agarose.
2nd photo: Early stage of biofilm formation. Under some conditions cells grow as “ropes,” leading to interesting network-like structures. Image: Confocal.
3rd photo: As the bacteria grow within a biofilm, they organize themselves into reproducible patterns and shapes that can be predicted with mathematical models. Image: Confocal microscopy of a bacterial biofilm composed of Bacillus subtilis expressing fluorescent proteins (TagRFP-T, sfGFP, TagBFP, mKate2 and mOrange2) to identify distinct lineages of bacteria in the biofilm.